Lingkungan Tropis, Edisi Khusus Agustus 2007 : 539 -550

MULTI PURPOSE DEEP TUNNEL (MPDT):
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE UNTUK PENGELOLAAN SDA DAN
PENANGANAN KEMACETAN LALU LINTAS SECARA
TERINTEGRASI BAGI KOTA METROPOLITAN JAKARTA

MULTI PURPOSE DEEP TUNNEL (MPDT): 

GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION MANAGEMENT FOR
JAKARTA METROPOLITAN CITY 

Firdaus Ali
Program Studi Teknik Lingkungan, Fakultas Teknik-Universitas Indonesia
Kampus UI Depok, Depok, Jawa Barat 16424
Email: firdaus@jakartawater.org; firdaus@eng.ui.ac.id

Abstrak: Kota Metropolitan Jakarta dihadapkan pada kondisi yang sangat kritis berkaitan dengan pengelolaan sumber daya air (SDA) dan masalah transportasi. Banjir Besar bulan Februari 2002 dan 2007 lalu merupakan bencana banjir besar dalam sejarah banjir di Jakarta dengan akumulasi kerugian mencapai Rp. 18,7 triliun. Dilain sisi, Jakarta juga sepanjang waktu selalu mengalami krisis air baku untuk air bersih. Rendahnya tingkat penanganan limbah cair telah memberikan dampak pencemaran yang serius terhadap badan air. Sementara karena endahnya cakupan layanan air bersih perpipaan terus mendorong terjadinya ekstraksi air tanah yang berlebihan sehingga mengakibatkan turunnya muka tanah (land subsidence) yang juga mempercepat intrusi air laut. Pertambahan jumlah kendaraan (10%/tahun) di Jakarta yang tidak pernah sejalan dengan pertambahan panjang ruas jalan (kurang dari 1%/tahun) telah menyebabkan kemacetan parah dimana-mana. Total kerugian akibat pencemaran udara yang terus meningkat seiring dengan pembosoran bahan bakar akibat kemacetan di DKI Jakarta mencapai Rp. 17,6 tiriliun setiap tahunnya. Pembatasan jumlah kendaraan pribadi dan perbaikan sistem transportasi publik merupakan kebijakan yang harus diprioritaskan karena penambahan ruas jalan senantiasa terkendala oleh ketersediaan 

dan pembebasan lahan. Multi Purpose Deep Tunnel System (MPDT) merupakan suatu green infratructure technology dalam upaya pengendalian banjir dan pengelolaan SDA perkotaan secara keseluruhan bersamaan dengan upaya penanganan kemacetan lalu lintas (traffic congestion) pada kota metropolitan yang dapat berjalan secara sinergis dan terintegrasi. Paper ini fokus mengkaji konsep dan penerapan MPDT dalam upaya mengatasi permasalahan tersebut diatas secara simultan dan terintegrasi bagi Metropolitan Jakarta.

Kata kunci: air baku, multi purpose deep tunnel, pengendalian banjir, dan sumber daya air.


Abstract: The Jakarta Metropolitan City is struggle with the issue of water resources management as well as traffic congestion problem. The catastrophic floods in February 2002 and 2007 were the biggest flood ever in the history of Jakarta causing a total capital loss of IDR 18.7 trillions. On the other hand, year-around Jakarta also face a raw water supply shortage. Inadequate urban wastewater management is the reason for severe pollution on the water bodies in almost all parts of Jakarta. Meanwhile, low service coverage of drinking water provision has encouraged excessive abstraction of ground water reserve. Evidence suggests it causes lowering of water table and generating land subsidence which speeds up sea water intrusion. The increasing number of vehicle (10% per-year) in Jakarta has not been followed by the expansion of road length (less than 1% per year), and it has caused severe traffic congestion in all parts of the city. The total capital loss due to the air pollution and the wastage of fuel consumption because of the increase in travel time in Jakarta is estimated has reached IDR 17.6 trillions each year. Restriction to the number of private cars and improvement of public transportation are policies that must be taken since the construction of new roads are always constrained by lack of available land and long and hard process of land acquisition. Multi Purpose Deep Tunnel System (MPDT) is an emerging green infrastructure in the integrated efforts to mitigate flood, to address urban water resources management, and to reduce traffic congestion in a metropolitan city which can be implemented in synergic manner. This paper introduce the concept and the application of MPDT in the effort to overcome urban water resource issue as well as traffic congestion problem in a simultaneous and integrated manner for the city of Jakarta.

Keywords: flood control, multi purpose deep tunnel, raw water, traffic congestion, and water resource.

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